Discovering new life in forests after fire

The author’s daughter enjoying the abundant young trees in a large snag forest patch created by the Rim Fire. The Forest Service claims that trees are not growing back here.

You may be living near an amazing  ecosystem that few people have explored or even are aware of. Conifer  forests in the western U.S. are home to a special type of habitat known  as “snag forests” that contain some of the highest levels of animal and  plant diversity and abundance of any forest type. These important places  are created when patches of intense, high-severity fire occur within  larger wildfires. 

This may be surprising to hear. While many  people understand that fire is a natural part of western forests, it is  often assumed that those fires are only supposed to burn at low  severity, rather the higher-severity “crown fires” that cause  substantial tree mortality. Crown fires produce the dramatic images that  you commonly see in the news, so it would be easy to get the impression  that most forest fires are now burning at high-severity. The reality is  that forest fires naturally burn with a mixture of severities. Most  fires consist mainly of low- and moderate-severity effects where the  majority of the trees survive the fire, while they also include patches  of high-severity. There is a growing body of scientific research showing  that the high-severity portions of these fires are creating great  habitat.

Again, this may come as a surprise. Right after a fire,  the images in the news tend to focus on blackened trees with no sign of  life. Timber companies and the Forest Service usually rush in to cut  down these trees soon after the fire, so there is no chance to see what  comes next. Yet where scientists have managed to find high-severity  patches that did not get cut, they have discovered that a remarkable  transformation takes place. 

Dead trees, called “snags”, provide  homes for many nesting birds and the insects they feed on, so places  with a lot of dead trees—i.e. snag forests—are filled with birdsong.  Snags also allow more sunlight to reach the forest floor, spurring a  surge new growth. In the years following a fire, snag forests are filled  with carpets of colorful flowers that attract butterflies and other  pollinators, and shrubs with leaves and berries that provide food for  deer, bears, and other forest wildlife. Snag forests abound with life.

Yet  all these ecological benefits from fire are lost when snag forests are  cut down. And because post-fire logging is so common, snag forests have  become one of rarest types of forest habitat in the western US, even  rarer than old-growth forests. 

One of the justifications used by  the Forest Service to log snag forests is the claim that trees will not  grow back on their own in these places. Therefore, the Forest Service  contends that it needs to clear out the snag forest in order to  artificially replant trees. In fact, western forests have evolved with  mixed-severity fires and new trees naturally grow back on their own,  even in large high-severity fire patches. However, this process was  little known because the logging that typically occurs after fires  brings in heavy machinery that crushes the new tree seedlings. Yet if  you visit snag forest patches that have not been logged, you will find  plenty of new tree growth.

Forest ecologist Dr. Chad Hanson of  the John Muir Project has spent a lot of time in snag patches for his  field research, so he was perplexed when Forest Service-affiliated  scientists published a paper claiming to show conifer trees were not  growing back after intense fires. Dr. Hanson investigated the sites  surveyed for this study and discovered that many of those places had  conditions where something other than fire would have precluded new  conifer tree growth— such as areas that had been clearcut before the  fire, or they were oak tree forests where there were no conifer trees  growing before the fire.

Dr. Hanson therefore decided to conduct a  study that would examine post-fire tree regeneration at a larger scale.  The results of his research were recently published, and they show that  trees are readily growing back in all of the high-severity fire patches  he surveyed, including deep inside very large patches. These trees soon  grow over the shrubs and other vegetation on the forest floor,  eventually shading them out of existence as the snag forest conditions  are supplanted by the more familiar type of green tree forest. 

Because  of this shift, the 4.6% of high-severity fire areas where Dr. Hanson  found conifer regeneration is occurring more slowly have an ecologically  desirable role as well. Since snag forest habitat is a temporary  phenomenon as new green trees displace the snag forest features, having a  few spots were trees regenerate more slowly allows the many plants and  animals that benefit from snag forests to have a bit more time with this  rare but important habitat. 

Unfortunately, the Forest Service  recently announced plans to cut much of the best remaining snag forest  habitat in California that was created by the Rim Fire of 2013 near  Yosemite National Park. Once again, the Forest Service is claiming that  there are no new trees growing in many of the places where they want to  log, even though these areas were part of where Dr. Hanson surveyed and  found wide-spread tree regrowth. Dr. Hanson and the John Muir Project  are now working with other environmental organizations such as the  Center for Biological Diversity and Sierra Club of California to  challenge the logging and save this vibrant snag forest habitat that is  home to a variety of imperiled species, including spotted owls, great  grey owls, and black-backed woodpeckers.

Last updated July 2, 2018

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